A、Seed fruit sprouting
There are many methods to germinate coconut seeds and fruits. However, generally divided into artificial sowing germination and natural germination of two types.
When we germinate coconut, we often use seed germination.
The germination site of coconut requires elimination of weeds, loosening of soil and leveling of land. And build the germination bed according to the requirement of 10 meters long and 1.2 meters wide. Leave a 60 cm walkway between the beds. Four ditches were opened in each bed, and the depth and width of each ditch was 15~20 cm. In this way, 220 seed fruits are sown per bed, and 112,500~120,000 seed fruits are sown per hectare.
② Sowing seeds
Before sowing the seeds, we need to take into account the source of coconut seed fruits, the type of variety, the time of harvesting and whether the seed fruits have germinated or not. We also need to strictly classify, grade and register them. Finally, eliminate the abnormal coconut seed fruits. When sowing the seeds, we need to pay attention to put the seed fruits of it with their fruit tips facing upward or tilted 45° in the same direction. Then, one by one, they are neatly placed in the furrow. Finally, the soil is mulched, generally covering 3/4 of the seed fruits.
The germination time varies depending on the variety of coconut. This is an expression of the inherent characteristics of a particular variety, which can be passed on to future generations. For example, the Mahua hybrids, whose parents are West African high species, the seed fruit germination is relatively late. Therefore, the hybrid horse wow germination time is also late, the duration is also long, can not use natural germination method germination. Immediately after harvesting the coconut seed fruits, we need to sow the seeds in the germination beds for germination, watering and management. This is the only way to achieve satisfactory results.
③ Management of germination beds
The germination bed needs to be managed by a dedicated person. We need to do timely watering and soil cultivation. Avoid excessive exposure of the seeds and fruits to the sun and water loss, which can damage the germination ability of the seeds. At the same time, we need to hoe diligently, keep it clean, and prevent rodent, disease, insect and animal damage.
2、Natural sprouting method
In the past, farmers germination is generally used to adopt this method. And can only be used for high seed coconut. Not suitable for dwarf coconut and hybrid coconut or seed fruit smaller coconut, and late germination of varieties.
① Hanging seeds and fruits germination method
This method mainly involves hanging the seeds in the air on a string and letting them germinate naturally. Coconut seeds that have sprouted are removed for seedlings, and those that do not sprout are sold to factories for processing of various products.
②Piercing and stacking method of germination
We string 6~8 coconut seeds into a bunch with bamboo scrims or iron wires. Then, we stacked them into columns with a height of 1.5 to 2.0 meters. Under the tree sprout or on open ground and let it germinate naturally. When most of the seed fruits have germinated, the fruit buds are removed for seedling. The coconut seed fruits that do not germinate are sold for processing.
③ Natural stacking method for germination
We pile the coconut seed fruits into random piles and let them germinate naturally. When the buds are 10-20 cm long, we take out the seedlings. The method has uneven germination and many deformed seedlings.
Natural germination method, although not to build germination beds, save land and labor, management costs are lower. However, we generally do not use it because of improper placement of seed fruits, low germination rate, many deformed and poor quality seedlings, long duration, poor quality of seedlings, and susceptibility to rodent damage.
B、The propagation of coconut
For the propagation of coconut, we generally use its seeds. Fully mature coconut, as long as there are appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, more than two months to start germination. Hainan commonly used in the preparation of nursery germination method. Choose a semi-shade, ventilated and well-drained environment. Eliminate weed tree roots and plow 15-20 cm deep. Open a trench, slightly wider than the width of the fruit. Then, we put coconut seed fruits one after another diagonally against the bottom of the trench at 45° and bury the soil to one-half to two-thirds of the fruit. When the buds are 10-15 cm long, we move it to a nursery with moderate shade. We need to pay attention to watering, drainage, weeding and fertilizing. Usually in about a year, the seedlings can be planted out of the nursery when they are about 1 meter high.
When planting coconut, we need to decide the planting density according to the site conditions, whether interplanting, mechanization degree, etc.. General high species 165-180 plants / h square meters, up to 210 plants / h square meters. The hybrid is 195-210 plants/h㎡, and the dwarf is about 225 plants/h㎡. At present, we generally use wide rows of dense planting. This facilitates the long period of planting and future renewal.
We generally plant coconuts in coastal areas. This is because typhoons often hit the area. Therefore, when planting coconuts, it is not advisable to plant them shallowly. Farmers through long-term practice, that should be “deep planting shallow soil cultivation”. The planting hole is 100cm*100cm*80cm. When planting coconut seedlings, mulch the soil to cover the coconut, and let the surface of the hole silt naturally. Planting seedlings are generally 8-18 months old. At this time, there are still remaining coconut nutrients, after planting reliable this to resume growth, high survival rate. Usually planted in the rainy season or the rainy season. Winter and dry season planting survival rate is low, slow growth.
D、The management of coconut garden
The year of planting and the following year need to fill the missing plants, so that the forest section can be neat. Later to strengthen the management, to prevent animal damage, to promote the nutritional growth of it, to lay the foundation for early and abundant production. For mature coconut plantations that have borne fruit, we need to focus on rational and economic fertilization. This can significantly increase the yield. Fertilization of low-yielding coconut plantations in Hainan Island can increase yields by 50%-150%. Currently, coconut producing countries are using coconut leaf nutrient diagnosis technology to guide fertilization. At present, the more used fertilizer on the market comes from Nagric.
Currently, coconut producing countries are changing from a monoculture system to a multiculture system in order to improve land use and economic efficiency. In young coconut fields, we can interplant peanuts, beans, and grain crops. For mature coconuts, we can plant crops with different habits together in a coordinated manner. This can make full use of light energy and ground power, forming a unity of crop production and ecological balance.
F、The management of coconut garden
We usually start planting coconut trees in the light or rainy season for a high survival rate. We need to plant deeply and cultivate the soil shallowly, usually just to cover the top of the seed fruits. Later, we need to weed, mid-tillage, soil cultivation and fertilization.
G、The characteristics of coconut
In the shape of a watermelon, the coconut resembles a watermelon. The exocarp is bookish, dark brown-green. The pericarp is a thick fiber layer, and the inner pericarp is horny. The fruit has a large storage cavity of coconut milk. When a coconut ripens, it has coconut milk stored inside. Clear as water, sweet as honey, shiny, is a very good cool thirst-quenching products.