A、Fruit tree fertilization
Soil fertilization is the main way of artificial fertilization of large trees. Organic fertilizers and most inorganic fertilizers used by soil application. Soil application requires application below the surface layer of the soil. This facilitates absorption by the root system and also reduces fertilizer losses. Some fertilizers are volatile. Not buried in the soil, the loss is great. For example, ammonium bicarbonate, spread on the surface of the ground, the drier the soil, the greater the loss. Ammonium sulfate, applied into the soil surface below 1~3 cm, can reduce the loss by 36%~60%.
① Ring fertilization
We need to dig a ring trench according to the size of the tree canopy, with the main trunk as the center. The radius is the drip line of the tree. We need to determine the depth of the trench according to the depth of root distribution. Usually 20~30cm deep and 30cm wide, finally put in the fertilizer and bury it back again with soil. Use when fertilizer is low or when the tree is young.
② Fertilizer application by release trench
We make a trench from under the tree canopy outward. The inside end starts slightly inside from the outer edge of the canopy projection. The outside end extends beyond the projection of the outer edge of the canopy. We need to make 4 to 8 furrows, the width and depth of which will depend on the amount of fertilizer. Apply fertilizer and mulch. This method of fertilizer application has less root injury and promotes root absorption. Suitable for mature trees, too densely planted trees also unsuitable for use. When applying fertilizer in the second year, the position of the furrows should be staggered.
③Fertilizer application to the whole garden
We first spread the fertilizer over the whole garden. Then, using a columbine, we mix the fertilizer with the soil or turn it into the soil. Under grass conditions, it is enough to spread the fertilizer on the grass. Fertilization of the whole garden is efficient when combined with irrigation. This method has a large fertilizer application area and facilitates root absorption. It is suitable for adult trees and densely planted trees.
④ Fertilizer application in a strip and trench
We need to draw two parallel lines on the left and right side of the tree, with the main trunk as the center. The distance from the line to the trunk is the distance from the drip line to the trunk of the tree. Depth 30cm each. While fill in the soil after fertilization. Usually used on mature trees.
⑤ Fertilizer application in disk furrows
We need to dig four to six 30cm wide pits in a circle with the trunk as the center and the drip line as the radius. Then spread the fertilizer evenly into the discs. Final mulching and filling. Generally used for fertilizing young trees.
We spread the fertilizer evenly around the tree. We then combine this with a deep raking in late fall/early winter or early spring. Finally, we turn the fertilizer into the soil. This fertilization method is generally applicable to adult trees whose root systems have covered the whole garden, but cannot be applied for a long time.
2、Outside the root fertilization
Fertilization outside the roots, including branch application or spraying, branch injection, foliar spraying. In general, we use foliar sprays in production.
① Branch application or spraying
This method is suitable for supplementing trees with iron, zinc and other trace elements. We can do it in combination with winter trunk whitening. We add ferrous sulfate or zinc sulfate to the white plaster slurry, and the concentration can be higher than foliar spraying. This way the bark can absorb the nutrients, but not as efficiently. After showering, the fertilizer on the trunk gradually seeps into the bark. Or washed into the soil under the canopy and then absorbed by the root system.
② Branch and trunk injection
We can use a high-pressure sprayer with a modified syringe to drill holes into the trunk first. Then, powerful injections into the trunk by syringe. For the injection of ferrous sulfate to prevent and control iron deficiency. Adding boric acid and zinc sulfate at the same time is also effective. All deficiencies are related to soil conditions. In the case of relying on soil fertilization is not effective, the effect of trunk injection is good.
Irrigation fertilization is to fertilize trees through irrigation systems, such as sprinkler irrigation, micro-irrigation and drip irrigation.
B、Field crop fertilization
We spread the fertilizer evenly in the soil. We can apply deep or shallow when spreading. The technique of deep application is to spread and then turn into the lower layer of the soil with a plow. Shallow application is simply to use a harrow and rake over. Scattering is suitable for dense crops and crops with large amounts of fertilizer. The advantage of spreading is that it is easy and nutrients are absorbed by the crop in all parts of the soil. The disadvantage is that the fertilizer utilization rate is not high. This is because the fertilizer is not fully utilized by the crop. It also fertilizes weeds. Water-soluble phosphorus fertilizer and the soil too much contact, easy to be fixed and reduce the effectiveness of fertilizer, fertilizer dosage. At present, the more used water soluble fertilizer in the market comes from Nagric.
2、Strip application and hole application
We apply fertilizer in the sowing ditch and sowing hole, or in the transplanting row and hole is called strip application and hole application. Fertilizer can be applied underneath the seed or to one or both sides of the seed. The following conditions are suitable for strip and hole application: ① Small amount of fertilizer. ②Crops are widely spaced. ③Fertilizers that are easily fixed by the soil, such as phosphorus fertilizer. ④Crops with poorly developed root systems and low soil fertility.
The advantages of this fertilizer application method are: fertilizer is near the roots and can be easily absorbed and utilized by the crop, thus the fertilizer utilization rate is higher. Fertilizer and soil contact surface is small, the degree of nutrient elements are fixed low, effective time longer than spreading.
That is, fertilization outside the root.