Pomegranate is rich in nutritional elements. And it is popular among consumers because it has the function of quenching thirst, astringent and astringent, stopping diarrhea and stopping bleeding. Therefore, many farmers started to plant pomegranate trees in large quantities. When planting pomegranate trees, fertilizer is essential for pomegranate trees. Therefore, farmers must do a good job of fertilizing pomegranate trees. So, when to fertilize the pomegranate tree? What are the methods of fertilizing pomegranate trees? Today, let’s take a look at it!
A、The fertilization time of pomegranate
Commonly used base fertilizer is mainly a variety of organic fertilizer and calcium superphosphate, bone meal and other late-effect fertilizer. Base fertilizer is mostly applied in autumn after fruit harvesting, autumn plowing or deep tillage. Or in the spring after the thaw, before the emergence of buds, and the best effect in autumn. Lin sol and cicada city, Huaiyuan and other production areas, fruit farmers combined with autumn deep plowing hollowing sand to remove the soil. Guest soil to improve the soil slope and apply phosphorus fertilizer. Human manure, cake fertilizer plus calcium superphosphate and other organic fertilizers. This can obviously strengthen the tree, the yield increases year by year.
Supplementary fertilizer is also called supplementary fertilizer. In the pomegranate growing season according to its fertilizer demand characteristics and the strength of the pomegranate tree, how much fruit, orchard climate, soil conditions, etc., timely application of fast-acting fertilizer to regulate the relationship between growth and fruit. There are 3 periods for pomegranate fertilization.
① Fertilizer before flowering
From budding to early flowering of pomegranate, apply quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer, with appropriate phosphorus fertilizer. This can promote the pomegranate tree buds neatly, increase the number of normal flowers, reduce flowering and fruit drop, and improve the fruiting rate of first flowering fruit. For old and weak trees with relatively too many large trees, it is necessary to increase the amount of chasing fertilizer. For young trees with strong growth, you may not apply or apply less nitrogen fertilizer to avoid the growth of pomegranate branches and increase the flower and fruit drop.
② Fertilizer in young fruit period
After most of the pomegranate flowers withered and fell off, the young fruit began to expand from late June to early July to chase nitrogen, phosphorus fast-acting fertilizer, and with appropriate potassium fertilizer. This can obviously reduce the young fruit shedding. And can promote fruit expansion, improve the yield of the year.
B、The fertilization method of pomegranate
The fertilization method of pomegranate can be divided into two forms: soil fertilization and extra-root fertilization. Soil fertilization is the main, supplemented by extra-root fertilization.
Soil fertilization is to apply fertilizer between the roots of fruit trees. This can facilitate the absorption of fertilizer by pomegranate trees. Fertilization effect and fertilization method has a close relationship. It should be based on the topography, terrain, soil texture, fertilizer type, especially the root distribution. The horizontal root group of pomegranate tree is generally concentrated in the periphery of the crown projection, so the depth and breadth of fertilization should be changed from inward to outward, from shallow to deep, year by year as the age of the tree increases.
① Ring ditch fertilization
This method is suitable for flatland pomegranate orchards. At the periphery of the vertical projection of the pomegranate canopy, we dig a circular trench about 50 cm wide and 25-40 cm deep. Then, we mix the fertilizer with topsoil and finally apply it into the trench and cover the soil. This method is generally used when planting young trees. It has the characteristics of easy operation and economic fertilizer use. However, digging a trench is easy to cut horizontal roots and the fertilizer application range is small.
② Fertilizer application by radial trench
Under the crown of the tree, about 1 meter from the main trunk, with the main trunk as the center. Dig 4~8 trenches in a radial pattern outward to the outer edge of the crown projection, 30-50 cm wide and 15~30 cm deep. Fertilizer and soil are mixed and applied. This method is suitable for fruiting pomegranate trees and fruit-bearing trees, and for fertilization during the growing season. When opening the trench, dig in the direction of horizontal root growth. This way, less roots are injured, however, care needs to be taken to avoid large roots when digging trenches. We can change the location of the radial trench every other year or every other time to expand the fertilizing surface and promote root absorption.
③ Fertilizer application in cavity
Under the canopy projection, dig fertilizer application holes 1 meter away from the trunk to apply fertilizer. Some areas use special fertilizer to chase fertilizer, which is very convenient to use. This method is mostly used for fertilization during the growth period of fruit-bearing trees.
④ Fertilization by ditch
Combined with the autumn plowing of pomegranate garden, fertilization in the row or plant or open ditch between rows, ditch width, depth, fertilization method and ring ditch fertilization method is the same. The following year, people moved the fertilization trench to the other side. People use this method for fall fertilization in deep-turned young tree gardens and wide rows of dense plantings.
⑤ Whole-garden fertilization
Whole-garden fertilization occurs when adult pomegranate trees or densely planted pomegranate orchards have a root system that covers the entire garden. We first spread the fertilizer evenly over the whole garden, and then turn it into the soil to a depth of about 20 cm. The advantage is that the whole garden has a large area for spreading and the roots can absorb the nutrients evenly. However, because of the shallow application, long-term use of the fertilizer tends to cause the root system to float up and reduce resistance. If we use it in rotation with the radial furrow fertilization method, it can complement the shortcomings and maximize the fertilization effect.
Irrigation fertilization is the combination of irrigation and fertilization. The fertilizer evenly distributed, not only does not hurt the roots, but also protects the soil structure of the tillage layer, saves labor, and has high utilization rate of fertilizer. This method is more suitable for adult tree orchards and dense orchards with dense pomegranate canopy and dry crop areas.
Each place can choose the appropriate fertilization method with the specific situation of pomegranate garden. When using ring ditch fertilization, cave fertilization, strip ditch fertilization, radial ditch fertilization, we need to pay attention to the annual rotation of fertilization parts, so that the root system development is uniform.
2、Fertilizer outside the root
Extra-root fertilization also called foliar fertilization. It is to spray a certain concentration of fertilizer liquid evenly on the leaves of pomegranate trees. This can increase tree nutrition, increase yield and improve fruit quality. Generally, it can increase the fruit set rate by 2.5%~4%, fruit weight by 1.5%~3.5% and yield by 5%~10%. It can also supplement the demand of some deficiency diseases for trace elements in time.
The advantages of foliar fertilization show fast absorption, quick response and obvious effect. Usually absorbed in 15 minutes to 2 hours after spraying. 10~15 days the leaves react obviously to the fertilizer elements. It can avoid the micronutrients applied into the soil and then fixed by the soil, reducing the fertilization effect.
Foliar fertilization, 25~30 days after spraying the response of pomegranate tree leaves to fertilizer elements gradually disappears. Therefore, it can only be a supplement to soil fertilization, and the large amount of nutrients needed by pomegranate trees for growth and fruiting still depends on soil fertilization to meet.