A. Summary of tea fertilization
The mineral elements necessary for tea tree fertility are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, sulfur and other massive elements and manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, aluminum, fluorine and other trace elements. Due to the age of the tree, tree potential, yield indicators, tea garden soil, tea type, planting density, the amount and method of fertilization is different. When applying the fertilizer, we should grasp the principles of fertilization of base fertilizer, appropriate fertilizer, phased fertilization, multi-fertilizer, and appropriate depth.
B. Tea fertilization key words
The most important thing is tea fertilization technology, fertilizer demand law, fertilizer demand characteristics, reasonable fertilization.
1. Tea harvesting
First of all, teas tree is a perennial cash crop with the harvesting of young shoots and leaves. Therefore, the new green nutritious shoots have to picked from the tea tree several times a year, which is a great nutrient drain on the teas tree.
2. Tea leaves maintain growth
The same teas tree itself also needs to continuously build roots, stems, leaves and other nutritional organs to maintain the tree’s prosperity and continue to expand and regenerate long.
3. Tea yield
As well as flowering and fruiting to reproduce offspring, etc., all need to consume a lot of nutrients. Therefore, a reasonable supplement must given at the right time to meet the robust growth of the tea tree, making it high quality, stable and high yield.
C. Tea growing areas
More than 70% of tea plantations in China are located in low hill red and yellow soil areas. There are obstacle factors such as clay and heavy soil texture, clay book, soil acidification, poor and unbalanced nutrient elements in low hill red and yellow loam. It causes low yield and low quality of tea in the area.
D. Fertilizer requirement law of tea
Therefore, the mineral elements necessary for tea tree fertility are: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, sulfur and other large elements and manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, aluminum, fluorine and other trace elements.
2. Tea research test
It can increase the yield of tea by about 20% and improve the quality of tea obviously. It can strengthen the photosynthetic ability of tea tree and the new tip tenderness, with high economic benefits. Production practice and scientific research shows that. Magnesium deficiency and zinc deficiency in the tea garden is more common.
3. Nitrogen in tea fertilization
Nitrogen is an important part of the synthesis of protein and chlorophyll. The application of nitrogen fertilizer can promote the growth of the root system of tea trees, so that the branches and leaves flourish, while promoting the absorption of other nutrients by tea trees. Improve the photosynthetic efficiency of tea tree, etc.
4. Adequate nitrogen supply
Tea trees sprout more, new growth is fast, long internodes, more leaves, larger leaf area, and longer holding period. It can also inhibit reproductive growth, thus improving the yield and quality of fresh leaves.
5. Improve the quality of green tea
Therefore, the application of nitrogen fertilizer has a good effect on improving the quality of green tea.
6. Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer
However, it has a negative impact on the quality of black tea. Therefore, it can improve the quality of both green and black teas when combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers properly.
7. Insufficient nitrogen fertilizer
The tree will be weakened, the leaves will be yellowed, the buds and leaves will thin, the proportion of the leaves to be clamped will be increased, the leaves will be coarse and old, the life span of adult leaves will be shortened, and the flowering and fruiting will be more, which will not only affect the tea yield but also reduce the quality.
8. Normal tea leaf quantity
However, the normal nitrogen content of fresh leaves of plant is 4%-5%, and that of old leaves is 3%-4%. Therefore, if the nitrogen content of young leaves drops below 4% and that of mature leaves drops below 3%, it means that the nitrogen fertilization is seriously insufficient.
E. Use of phosphorus fertilizer
However, phosphorus fertilizer can mainly promote the development of tea tree root system and enhance the absorption of nutrients by tea trees. Thus promoting starch synthesis and improving chlorophyll physiology.
1.Improve tea quality
Thus, the content of polyphenols, catechins, proteins and water leachates in leaves can be improved.Therefore a more comprehensive improvement in tea quality, tea tree phosphorus deficiency is often not easily detected in a short period of time, and sometimes only manifests itself after several years.
2. Phosphorus deficiency symptoms
The new buds and leaves are yellow and thin, the internodes are not easily elongated, the old leaves are dark green and lusterless, then withered and fallen off, and the root system is dark brown.
Potassium has a positive effect on the formation, transformation and storage of carbohydrates, and it can also supplement insufficient sunlight.However, it promotes photosynthetic assimilation in low light, promotes root development and regulates water metabolism. Thus enhancing resistance to frost damage and pests and diseases.
4. In case of potassium deficiency
The lower leaves of tea trees become old early and fall off early, the branches of tea trees are sparse and slender, and the crown does not develop. Young leaves scorched edge and accompanied by irregular lack of green, so that the tree resistance to diseases and insects and other natural disasters under the ability to reduce.
5. Crop uptake of N
In addition, the two main types of nitrogen are ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (N03-N).
6. Tea tree is an ammonium-loving crop
Separate application of NH4-N and N03-N application ratio tuning, the more NH4-N dosage, the more amino acid content. In particular, the amino acid content of tea was checked for changes, and the results showed that the theanine, which affects the flavor of tea, increased significantly.
7. According to statistics
Therefore, the pure N use in typical areas in China ranges from 0-2600kg/hn², with an average of 553kg/hm².
8. Heavy use of nitrogen fertilizer
The massive use of nitrogen fertilizer not only causes a significant decrease in the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer, but also leads to serious environmental pollution.
9. It is reported that
The utilization rate of nitrogen in the garden is generally around 30%.
10 The nitrogen not utilized by tea trees
Except for a small portion still retained in the soil, most of it is released into the environment as nitrate and nitrous oxide through nitrification and denitrification.
11. Tea plantation with 900kg/hm² of applied nitrogen
However, the N leached by nitrate in that year was as high as 457 kg/hm².
12. The loss through N20 is even more alarming
Under the condition of yellow muddy sandy soil, through the experiment of different ratios of N, P and K for tea trees. It was found that the best N:P205:K20 ratio of 4:1:1 and 3:1:1 should applied in terms of both yield and quality. The low ratio of nitrogen resulted in low yield.
F. Fierce on amino acid synthesis
However, vitamin C and tea polyphenols have a boosting effect.. Zinc is a component of protein and nucleic acid synthase defense, and the effective soil zinc content is significantly correlated with nitrogen and amino acid.
G. Magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll
Theophylline synthase can only carry out enzymatic reaction under the action of magnesium.
(1) Uptake time
The nutrient requirement of tree is not consistent in different cycles of annual development.
(2) According to research data
The uptake of nitrogen in a year is more from April to June, July to August, September and October to November.
More than 55% of the total nitrogen uptake throughout the year, while phosphorus uptake is mainly concentrated in April-July and September. Potassium uptake is greatest from July to September.
H. Three elements of tea tree
The requirements of each organ of tree for the three elements also vary in different periods.
① Tea tree root system
needs nitrogen mainly from September to November.
②Tea tree stems
The stems are in July-November, and these two seasons account for about 60%-70% of the total annual uptake.
③The amount of nitrogen required by the leaves
April-September want 80%-90% of the total amount of the year.
④The demand of tea tree roots for phosphorus
The peak period is September-November, the stems are in September, and the leaves, buds and other organs are in April-October. Among them, the demand is the highest in July.
⑤ Potassium demand of tea tree roots
It is mainly from September to November, accounting for about 50-60% of the year. The stems are in April-September, with the greatest demand in September.
⑥Tea in different seasons
Tea trees in different seasons for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium demand pattern characteristics of the situation, the right amount of fertilizer at the right time. It is also an important way to improve the utilization rate of various types of fertilizers.
I. Fertilizer demand characteristics
(1) the need for fertilizer continuity
Tea tree is a perennial plant, in the annual growth and development cycle. Most of the period is in the bud picking, and constantly consume nutrients.
(2) Tea tree growth
Since tea trees are carrying out metabolic activities in their organism at all stages of fertility throughout the year. It never stops, so the nutritional conditions in the tree are good or bad.
(3) Tea yield
It is not only closely related to the yield and quality of the current year. And also affect the next year’s production and quality performance, so the tea tree’s demand for nutrients is continuous.
(4) Fertilizer demand stage
At different stages of its development and growth, the demand and absorption of various nutrients are focused.
(5) Young tea tree
The growth of nutrient organs is the main focus. The growth of the above-ground branch tips exceeds that of the below-ground root system, and more synthesis than decomposition. Appropriate additional phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should applied to lay the foundation for future growth and development.
(6) Tea trees in the young and strong age
As nutritional and reproductive growth go hand in hand, it is necessary to make a large amount of additional nitrogen fertilization. Promote a large number of sprouting leaves and use phosphorus and potassium and a variety of elements to promote high yield and quality.
(7) Concentration of fertilizer requirements
In the annual development cycle, due to seasonal changes and its own physiological activity phenomenon and the formation of a period of vigorous growth and growth of the relative rest period.
(8) Mature tea plantation
Due to harvesting and other relations, the bud tip growth forms a relatively obvious round, after each round of young buds and leaves are picked during the peak growth period. In order to meet the needs of normal growth and replenish the losses brought about by finance, it is necessary to provide a large amount of concentrated nutrition.
(9) Three elements
Among the three elements, nitrogen is required in the greatest amount. Potassium is the next most important, and phosphorus is the next most important.
J. Adaptability of fertilizer needs
Tea tree has a wide range of adaptations to nutritional conditions, first of all, it is expressed in the diversity of its needs for nutrients.
① Tea tree in the process of growth and development
The demand for nutrients, in terms of quantity. Although N, P and K are the three main elements. But in addition to this, some trace elements Mn, Fe, Zn, B, Al, Cu also have a great impact on the normal physiological activities of the tea tree.
②The lack of certain elements
All will cause the normal metabolism of tree to be disturbed and damaged, and produce physiological lesions. and lead to a decrease in yield and quality.
③Tea tree has strong fertility tolerance and barrenness tolerance
Taking the application of nitrogen fertilizer as an example, for each hectare of plantation, the minimum application of pure nitrogen fertilizer can be 50kg, and the maximum application of 1000kg, although the difference between the two application amounts of 20 times, but there is no harm to the tree. It can be seen that tea trees do have greater adaptability to nutrition.
K. Reasonable fertilization
China’s tea area is vast, and there are many types of tea garden soils. The climatic conditions are complex and produce different types of tea. In determining the method of fertilization for pollution-free gardens in a certain area, in addition to the rules of fertilizer absorption according to tea trees.
1. Agricultural technology
Also according to the local tree varieties, tea production status, tea plantation type, climate characteristics, soil fertility and irrigation, tillage, picking and other agricultural technology actual situation. According to local conditions, flexible control.
2. Spring tea
That is, the tea farmers said to “look at the sky, look at the ground, look at the fertilizer, look at the tea” fertilization. Such as the production of famous tea tea plantations, mainly rely on spring tea.
3. Base fertilizer for tea plantation of bulk tea
In areas with severe spring drought, spring fertilizer is not easy to play the effect. More spring fertilizer will instead cause fertilizer damage.
4. The proportion of chasing fertilizer in spring, summer and autumn
Young tea trees and tea plantations should pay due attention to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. In order to facilitate the growth of young tea tree roots and seeds of trees left full. In the dry season, more fertilizer can be applied outside the roots and less root fertilizer, etc.
L. Principles of tea garden fertilization
(1) Organic fertilizer is the mainstay
Organic fertilizer combined with inorganic fertilizer to improve soil fertility
(2) Mainly nitrogen fertilizer
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in conjunction with the three elements, pay attention to the whole fertilizer
(3) pay attention to the base fertilizer
Combine basic fertilizer with chasing fertilizer to improve tea yield.
(4) Rational fertilization
Focus on inter-root fertilization and combine inter-root fertilization with extra-root fertilization.
(5) Amount and method of fertilization
The quantity and method of fertilization vary depending on the age of the tree, tree potential, yield index, tea garden soil, type made and planting density.
(6) Heavy application of base fertilizer
The fertilization principle of appropriate chasing fertilizer, phased chasing fertilizer, multi-fertilizer with appropriate depth.
M. Fertilization techniques for tea plantations
The key point of tea garden fertilization technology is to master the fertilization period and fertilization method.
①Young tea plant
Adequate nitrogen fertilizer should be applied to meet the needs of rapid growth of branches, leaves and buds.
②Adult tea trees
The organic fertilizer should be sufficient and combined with chasing and base fertilizer.
③Tea tree growth periodSpring, summer and autumn are the vigorous growth period of tea trees, which require a large amount of fertilizer. Especially for spring tea, the fertilizer should be mainly applied at this time to replenish the nutrients taken away by picking in time. Fertilizer is mainly fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer.
④Dormant period of tea tree
In winter, the temperature is low and the tree is in a dormant state. At this time is mainly to gather nutrients, can be applied late or slow decomposition of fertilizers.
⑤ Fertilization of tea plantation
There are mainly three methods: furrow application, nest application and foliar spray application. Fertilization requirements in general, should do “a deep, two early, three more, four balanced, five matching”.
“A deep” means that the fertilizer should be applied appropriately deep, in order to promote the development of the root system to the deep direction of the soil. Before planting tea trees, the depth of the base fertilizer is required to be at least 30cm or more. Base fertilizer should reach about 20cm.
It should also be applied 5-1Ocm deep, and should not be spread. Otherwise, the fertilizer will be washed away in case of heavy rain, and a lot of nitrogen will be volatilized and lost in case of drought. Will also induce the tree root system concentrated in the surface soil, thereby reducing the ability of tea trees to resist drought, cold and other natural disasters.
⑧ two early
Base fertilizer to early, into the autumn and winter, with the lower temperature. The above-ground part of the tree gradually enter a dormant state, the root system began to be active. But the temperature is too low, the growth of the root system also slowed down, so the early application of fertilizer can promote the absorption of nutrients by the root system.
⑨ Middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River tea area
Fertilizer is required to be applied between early September and late October
⑩North Jiangsu tea area
It can be applied earlier to late August and finished in early October. While the southern tea area can delay the application until late September and end in late November.
N. Sprouting fertilizer should be early
to improve the contribution of fertilizer to spring tea. According to the experiment, the spring fertilizer time from March 13 to February 13 earlier, Longjing tea production increased. The time to apply sprouting fertilizer generally requires about l months earlier than the famous tea mining period, such as the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area should be applied in February under.
1. Three more
The variety of fertilizers should be more. Not only to apply nitrogen fertilizer, but also to apply phosphorus, potassium fertilizer and magnesium, sulfur, copper, zinc and other trace elements fertilizer, as well as organic fertilizers. To meet the needs of trees on a variety of nutrients and constantly improve the level of soil fertility
2. The amount of fertilizer should be appropriate more
Each 100kg of bulk tea production, mu of pure nitrogen 12-15kg. such as tea production to young buds as raw materials for the famous tea, the amount of fertilizer needs to be increased by 1-2 times. However, the amount of chemical nitrogen fertilizer applied per mu (pure nitrogen) should not exceed 15kg, and the maximum annual amount should not exceed 60kg.
3. The number of fertilization should be more
Requirement to do “a base three chase ten spray”. Spring production of high tea plantations, can be added during the spring tea a chase fertilizer. To meet the continuous demand for nutrients of tea trees, while reducing waste.
4. Four balance
The most important thing is to have a balance of organic and inorganic fertilizers.
5. Organic fertilizer
Not only can it improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, but also provide coordinated and complete nutrient elements. However, because the nutrient content of organic fertilizer is low, it needs to be accompanied by inorganic fertilizer with high nutrient content. In order to achieve the purpose of both meeting the growth needs of trees and improving the soil properties. The base fertilizer is mainly organic fertilizer, and the follow-up fertilizer is mainly inorganic fertilizer.
6. Nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer
Large amounts of elements and trace elements to balance. Only a balanced fertilization, in order to play the effect of each nutrient. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is 2-4:1:1 for mature picking plantations.
7. Base and follow-up fertilizers
Tea tree absorption of nutrients has obvious storage and reuse characteristics, the fall and winter tree absorption of stored nutrients is the material basis for the next spring sprouting.
8. Heavy application of basal fertilizer
However, the growth and nutrient absorption of tree is a continuous process, therefore, only the balance of base fertilizer and chasing fertilizer can meet the annual growth cycle of tree nutrient needs. Generally, it is required that the base fertilizer accounts for about 40% of the total fertilizer application and the follow-up fertilizer accounts for about 60%.
9. Root fertilization and foliar fertilization
Tea tree has a deep and extensive root system, its main function is to absorb nutrients and water from the soil. However, trees have many leaves and large surface area, in addition to photosynthesis, there is the function of nutrient absorption.
10. Soil drought affects root absorption
When applying micronutrients, foliar application of fertilizer is more effective. In addition, leaf and fertilization can also activate the enzyme system in the tree and strengthen the absorption capacity of the root system of the tree. Therefore, only on the basis of root fertilization with foliar fertilization, can the full effect of fertilization.
11. Five matching
It means that the fertilization of tea plantations should be carried out in conjunction with other techniques in order to give full play to the effect of fertilization.
12. Fertilization with soil test and plant analysis
Based on the results of soil and plant analysis, an accurate fertilization and soil improvement plan for the garden is formulated. It is generally required to monitor the soil fertility level and heavy metal element content etc. of the plantation every two years. In order to understand the changing trend of the soil fertility level of tea plantations and adjust the fertilization techniques in a targeted manner.
13. Fertilization and tea tree varieties
Different varieties have obvious “individual characteristics” in terms of nutrient requirements. Such as Longjing 43 requires a higher amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application, while the apple cloud is poor fertility tolerance, fertilization can not be too high, high fragrance varieties of Longjing long leaves on the higher requirements of potassium. Therefore, the garden fertilization, especially good varieties of garden fertilization only take into account the characteristics of its species, in order to give full play to the advantages of good species.
14. Fertilization and weather, fertilizer varieties
This point is especially important in the low hill red soil area where seasonal drought is obvious and soil clayiness is heavy. If the weather continues to be dry, the soil is caked, the fertilizer applied is not easily dissolved and absorbed by the tree. Fertilizer application before excessive rain or heavy rainfall will easily lead to fertilizer nutrient leaching and loss. Different fertilizer application methods according to the type of fertilizer can improve the utilization rate of fertilizer.
15. Fertilizer application and soil tillage, tea tree harvesting and pruning
Such as the application of fertilizer and deep plowing and soil reform, fertilizer and hoeing combined to save costs, but also to improve the effectiveness of fertilization. Such as picking famous tea-based garden should be appropriate early, more fertilizer, picking black tea garden can be appropriate more potash and copper fertilizer. Young gardens and heavy cutting, transformation of gardens should be more phosphorus, potassium fertilizer, etc.
16. Fertilization and pest control
On the one hand, tea trees are well fertilized, which can easily lead to pest and disease hazards, so attention should paid to timely prevention and control. On the other hand, more potassium fertilizer should applied appropriately to gardens with serious pest and disease hazards, especially those with heavy diseases. It is also balanced and coordinated with other nutrients, which is conducive to reducing the infestation rate of diseases and enhancing the ability of tea trees to resist pests and diseases.
N. Number of fertilization in tea garden
It is related to the climatic conditions of the area, the amount of fertilization and the picking system. In the northern region of China, due to the low temperature, few germination rounds and short picking period, in addition to the base fertilizer, 2-3 times of fertilizer can be applied.
1. Most tea areas in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River
Tea buds sprout more times and the growing period is longer, so in addition to the basic fertilizer, it is appropriate to apply 3-4 times of fertilizer.
2. Southern tea area
Due to the high temperature and rainfall, the growing period is long and the sprouting rounds are me. In general, in addition to the base fertilizer, it is appropriate to apply 4-5 times of fertilizer.
3. The number of fertilizer chasing in tea garden
The relationship with the amount of fertilizer application is also very large.
4. According to the test
In the annual application of follow-up fertilizer nitrogen 40 pounds, the annual application of five times than three times and divided into two applications respectively 17% and 23% yield increase. Therefore, it can argued that in the case of more fertilizer, to divided into fewer applications, which is conducive to the effectiveness of fertilizer.
5. Autumn and winter application of base fertilizer
Firstly, organic fertilizers and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should the main focus, followed by the application of some compound fertilizers.
6. New growth of tea trees
In each round of new growth before, timely application of fertilizer in batches. Generally 3 times a year, mainly fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer. Combined with phosphorus, potassium fertilizer and extra-root fertilizer to promote the sprouting of buds.
7. General annual mu
Apply 10-15kg of pure nitrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium application ratio of 2-4:1:1. During the production of tea, the main nitrogen fertilizer, generally 15-25kg of urea, ammonium sulfate, calcium magnesium phosphorus and compound fertilizer.
8. Base fertilizer application period
Due to the great differences in climatic conditions around the world, mainly in the ground part of the tree immediately after the cessation of growth, it is advisable to early rather than late.
9. Tree stops growing
In most tea areas, trees stop growing in early to late October, so it is appropriate to apply base fertilizer in late October to early November.
However, it was applied after the beginning of spring, with the first follow-up fertilizer applied in early March.
11. After the end of spring tea
Therefore, the third fertilization will carried out after the end of summer tea.
12. Dry season
Do not apply chasing fertilizer, apply before the dry season comes or after the drought is lifted