Apricot is a shrub of the genus Plum in the subfamily Plum in the family Rosaceae. It has excellent characteristics such as strong adaptability, drought resistance, cold tolerance and less stringent requirements for soil conditions. With the increasing value of apricot almonds in recent years, coupled with the successive launch of national key ecological projects, the cultivation of artificial apricot forests has also received general attention. The cultivation area has also increased year by year. By selecting good and strong seedlings and implementing intensive cultivation and management measures, we can realize the eugenical and abundant production of apricots.
A、Cultivation of good and strong seedlings
1、Selection of apricot seeds
Select apricot trees with strong development, normal canopy, large amount of fruit and no diseases and pests as mother trees. Collect the seeds when they are mature.
We generally choose seedlings from plots with flat terrain, more fertile soil, and capable of irrigation and drainage. Rake in autumn to a depth of 20~25 cm. Level after raking. The seeds can be sown in autumn or in spring. Seed treatment is required for spring sowing. Before the soil freezes, we soak the seeds for two days and then disinfect them. Finally, the seeds are mixed with 3 times wet sand and then put into the pit. The pit is 80-100 cm deep and covered with 20-30 cm of thick soil.
Wait until the beginning of April of the next year, take the seeds out of the pit and pile them in the back shade. Then, cover it with plastic cloth, turn it frequently, and wait for 1/3 of the seeds to crack, then sow the seeds. The sowing volume is about 50 kg per mu. Sowing time is mid to late April. For autumn sowing, seeds can be sown after soaking and disinfection. We need to strengthen the management, timely irrigation, mid-tillage, weeding, interplanting, leaving about 30,000 seedlings per mu.
We choose thick soil layer, the soil quality is relatively good mountain sunny slope or gentle sand swamp afforestation. This is conducive to mixed forest of trees and irrigation. The seedlings for establishing apricot forests need to be strong with well-developed root systems, full buds, free from diseases and pests, and free from mechanical damage. From starting and transporting seedlings to planting, we need to pay attention to moisture and strictly prohibit water loss. Plant 111 to 222 apricot seedlings per acre. For wasteland reforestation, we usually do it in the rainy season of the previous year. Planting is done in the same way as conventional afforestation. No land preparation is required for fallow land, and it is watered thoroughly after planting. In the first year of afforestation, we need to water at the right time according to the drought condition to ensure the survival of apricot trees.
1、Apricot forest under-tree management
In order to promote the growth of apricot trees and increase the yield, we need to weed and loosen the soil and turn it deeply to ripen the soil. The deep turning methods are circular deep turning, inter-row deep turning and cavity expansion. We can loosen the soil of young apricot trees in the form of holes or inter-row mesocosms. In hilly areas with large slopes, we can use cavity loosening. We usually do this 2 to 3 times a year.
For mature stands of apricot, on sloping sites, plan the tree pan 1~3 times a year. This can be done in spring, summer and autumn. In spring, plan the tree pan before the apricot trees sprout. Summer planing of tree trays after fruit harvesting. Autumn planing of tree trays takes place before freezing. In hilly mountainous areas with large slopes, we can complement the land preparation project. Repair ruffle trenches, large fish scale pits and repair horizontal ditches, etc. to fully control soil erosion on the slope.
2、Apricot tree management
We need to spray the apricot trees with plant growth regulators and micronutrients. This can significantly improve the fruit set rate and increase the yield. We generally use 1000ppm of rare earth, 50ppm of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 25ppm of anti-fall, 0.3% of boric acid, etc. Spray at the flowering stage and young fruit expansion of apricots. Apply base fertilizer, usually 50 kg of farmyard manure per plant before the soil freezes or in early spring. At the same time, mix with 0.5 kg of urea. After fertilization, we need to water enough. After flowering, apply quick-acting fertilizer, 10 kg of diammonium scale acid per mu. This can improve the fruit set rate and promote the growth of young apricot fruits.
3、Frost prevention during flowering
From mid-April to early May, apricot flowers and young fruits are vulnerable to late frost. This can cause yield reduction or crop failure. Therefore, we have to do a good job of frost prevention in advance. We usually set up smoke piles in the depression, 2~3 in an acre. We can use local materials for smoke generation. Start with a pile of firewood and straw. Then, we cover the outermost part with soil. Finally, leave a good smoke outlet. We need to light the fire to disperse the smoke and form a smoke screen before the frost according to the local weather forecast.
4、Flat crop renewal
Apricots usually bear fruits 2~3 years after planting, and enter the fruiting stage after 5~6 years, and enter the aging stage after 15~20 years. At this time, we need to renew the flat stubble. After the soil freezes, we cut the above-ground part of the apricot against the ground with a sharp axe or quick pick. Then bury the mound of soil. Finally, we wait until the next spring to re-sprout. After we flattened the crop, the new branches of apricots sprouted vigorously. We need to wipe out the buds and set the plant, and generally select 2~4 new branches with good growth and orientation for each bush for directional cultivation.