Hawthorn is a fruit tree with rich nutritional substances and medical effects. Hawthorn is also an important raw material for the food and pharmaceutical industries. The cultivation of hawthorn is not only highly adaptable, but also productive and long-lived, which is a great advantage in the production of fruit trees in mountainous areas. It can increase farmers’ economic income, improve and enhance the quality of life. At the same time, hawthorn is an excellent tree species for greening and beautifying the environment. Today, let’s learn how to grow hawthorn together!
A、Selection of hawthorn land
Hawthorn trees are highly adaptable. To plant hawthorn trees, we can choose a deep, fertile soil that is easy to retain fertilizer and water. At the same time, it is not too sticky neutral or slightly acidic soil. For soils that are too thin and easy to lose water and soil. Hawthorn cannot be planted.
B、Establishment of Hawthorn Garden
After the hawthorn plot is selected. Then, we have to build the garden.
1、Plant a good protective forest
Protective forests can prevent wind and sand, prevent soil erosion, reduce water and soil erosion, and conserve water. We can plant a forest belt in the upper part of the hawthorn garden and the edge of the hawthorn garden.
2、Good drainage and irrigation water system
The hillside irrigation should build water lifting stations where there are water sources. And build a good reservoir in the highest part of the hawthorn orchard. In the garden, we need to build dry drains and branch drains. The direction of the drains should preferably be the same as the road. This will facilitate cultivation and transportation. For flat hawthorn orchards, we also need to do water diversion, water lifting works and build irrigation channels. When constructing the irrigation system, the drainage system should also be constructed.
To build hawthorn orchards in hilly and sloping areas. The most important thing is to build soil and water conservation works. This can prevent soil erosion and ensure the growth and development of hawthorn.
① Terracing construction
We need to make a good measurement first and measure out the contour line based on the thickness of soil layer, slope size and planting spacing requirement. The width of the terrace surface is 5~7 meters. Dig out a drainage ditch inside the terraces to store water normally. When it rains a lot, it can be drained in time to protect the terraces.
② Fish scale pit construction
For building hawthorn orchards in complicated terrain or places with large slopes, fish scale pits can be built. The size of the fish scale pit can be determined according to the location and slope of the hawthorn tree. If the slope is gentle, the fish scale pit can be bigger. If the slope is steep, the fish scale pit can be smaller. The lower edge of the pit should be built up with stones. This is good for soil and water conservation and promotes the growth and development of hawthorn.
C、Planting of Hawthorn trees
In areas with harsh winters, we usually plant hawthorn in spring. In some areas where the winter is not too cold and the spring is sandy, we have to plant hawthorn in the autumn.
Hawthorn varieties such as Fuchsia, Jiangxian red fruit, Yubei red, red-fleshed sheep’s ball, King’s gold star, and Ji’an purple flesh.
3、Pollination with planting
We to significantly improve the fruiting rate of hawthorn and increase the yield. When planting, you can choose suitable hawthorn varieties or late maturing wild types of hawthorn with similar flowering period as pollination trees. For example, in some areas, late maturing wild hawthorn with larger fruit size is used as pollinator tree for big hawthorn.
4、Digging the planting hole
When digging the hole, pile up the topsoil and heart soil separately. The hole should be 80 cm deep and 100 cm in diameter.
After the hole is dug, apply 75 kg of soil fertilizer per hole. And mix with topsoil and fill in the hole, need to fill while stepping. Fill it to about 27 cm from the ground, slightly higher in the middle in the shape of a steamed bun. And put the planted hawthorn seedlings into the pits according to the requirements of the namely decided variety matching. We need to connect the root soil closely and then fill the soil to compact. After filling the soil well, make soil ridge around the pit. At the same time, water it well and also keep it moist frequently until it comes to life.
D、Management of Hawthorn Garden
Soil improvement and strengthening soil management in hawthorn orchards. Continuously improving soil fertility is the basis of hawthorn’s abundant and stable production. Do a good job of deep tilling, fertilizing and filling the soil so that the planting holes can reach deeper, more fertile and more humid. Thus, water will not go downhill and soil will not be lost. The orchard with high standard that the roots do not bare and retains soil and moisture. Specific practices are as follows.
Hawthorn young trees to do not cause injury to the roots as a principle, when the deep turn can be. Adult hawthorn trees, due to the root system expansion range, should try to avoid injury to the roots. We generally perform deep tillage after the annual fruit harvest. It can also be done in rows or plants. In the process of deep turning, it is important to avoid injuring the roots and to apply a good base fertilizer. For mature trees, apply 100 kg of well-rotted organic fertilizer per plant and spread it on the root concentration area. Then mulch and trample the soil. After deep tilling, it is necessary to irrigate all the deep tilled soil layer in time. This will facilitate the growth of hawthorn.
2、Tree tray filling
Usually done in the late fall. We fill the tree tray with soil to prevent the root system from being exposed and to replace fertilizer with soil. This is good for the growth and development of young trees, and also good for the flowering and fruiting of fruiting trees.
Base fertilizer is an important source of nutrition for hawthorn. We need to fertilize before and after the harvest. 100 kg of green manure and 30 kg of compost for each buried plant of mature hawthorn trees is sufficient.
For the first time, we need to fertilize the tree around the time of flowering. Apply 1.5 kg of ammonium sulfate per plant, which can reduce flowering and fruit drop. The second application of fertilizer usually takes place during rapid fruit expansion. Apply 1 kg of ammonium sulfate and 2 kg of calcium superphosphate per plant. This can meet the nutrient needs of fruit growth. At the same time to ensure that the current year’s yield, the next year’s flowering and fruiting has a good effect.
F、Pruning of hawthorn trees
As the tree grows older, the number of branches increases, the amount of fruit produced increases, and the light in the canopy becomes poor. Therefore, we can prune to keep the tree strong and prolong the fruiting years.
1、Pruning of central trunk
When the hawthorn canopy reaches the appropriate height, we need to control the growth of the central trunk. If the hawthorn crown has not yet reached its height, continue to shorten the extension branches of the central stem. This can keep the advantage of the central stem.
2、Pruning of main and side branches
If the space between plants and rows is large, you can continue to shorten the extension of the main branch to expand the crown. Plant and row space is not much, we need to convert the main and side branch head. By the rear of the new tips instead of the main branch head. However, pay attention to the orientation of the main and lateral branches, do not affect each other. This is conducive to coordination with the central stem, for subordination, for growth and robustness.
3、Pruning of fruiting branches
After the hawthorn tree enters the fruiting stage, perennial weakened branches begin to appear in the crown, especially the increase of successive years fruiting branches. At this time, we need to thin and shorten the branches to concentrate the nutrients to make them stronger, improve the fruit set rate and increase the fruit size. When pruning, we can cut off the front and promote the back, remove the weak and leave strong. The fruit-bearing branches and fruit-bearing groups can be strengthened. We can cut off the overdense branches, dead branches, cross branches, and diseased branches. At the same time, we need to control the growth and competition of branches. This will facilitate the flowering and fruiting of hawthorn.