A. Definition of soil improvement
Firstly soil improvement is directed at the poor texture and structure of the soil. Secondly appropriate physical, biological or chemical measures are taken. Secondly, it improves the soil properties and structure, and increases the soil fertility. Finally it can increase the quality and yield of crops and improve the process of soil environment for human existence.
1. Clay heavy soil
The organic fertilizer applied is easy to form humus, thus promoting the formation of agglomerate structure, changing soil structure and improving soil fertility. However, generally apply 15-20 tons of organic fertilizer per mu per year, and it can line into a good base in 3-4 years.
2. Pressing sand to reduce the stickiness
For example, 20-30 tons of river sand soil is applied to each mu of land. Therefore, two consecutive years with the application of organic fertilizer can improve the clay heavy soil.
3. Low-lying saline barren soil improvement
The additional application of organic fertilizers to the soil, combined with its deep plowing cuts the capillary connection between the topsoil and the subsoil. The same allows the conversion of organic fertilizers into humus, which however encourages the formation of agglomerate structure in the topsoil layer to improve soil fertility.
4. Use soil chemical amendment
Through agro-biological measures such as land leveling, soil fertilization, planting alkali-tolerant crops and green fertilizers. Improve the soil and fertility.
5. Fertility improvement of sandy soil
Apply organic fertilizers in large quantities. Turn all kinds of stable manure and compost into the soil in spring or autumn to increase the organic matter content. With the buffering effect of organic matter, apply more soluble chemical fertilizers appropriately and keep them in the soil without losing them.
6. Mass application
It can apply 5-10 tons of river mud per year, so its soil fertility can improved quickly. Thus, it can improve the phenomenon of excessive loosening, water leakage and fertilizer leakage.
7. Planting green manure
To plant vegetables of the legume family in the spare season between two crops. To increase humus and nitrogen fertilizer in the soil.
8. Guest soil improvement, deep turning and sand pressing
Deep turning of soil to make the bottom layer of clay mixed with the surface layer of sand to reduce its sandiness. You can also take the method of guest soil improvement to reduce sandiness and improve the water and fertilizer storage capacity of the soil.
B. Too sandy, too clay soil improvement
(1) Increase the application of organic fertilizer
Thus by increasing the amount of organic fertilizer applied, the nutrient uptake storage can be improved. Similarly breaking up large clay-bonded clods into moderately sized clods increases the permeability of the soil.
(2) Mixing guest soil to improve soil quality.
The guest soil with too sandy or too clay texture is mixed into the native soil with too clay or too sandy texture to change the native texture, and the depth range of improvement is the soil tillage layer. The proportion of sandy soil mixed with clay is not clearly required, while clay soil mixed with sand requires a larger amount of sand than the amount of clay to improved.
(3) Turning silt and pressing sand, turning sand and pressing silt
When there is a big difference between the subsoil and the cultivated soil in a certain area. The subsoil can turned up and mixed with the tilled soil by plowing and tilling as a guest soil.
(4) Flooding and sand diversion
The silt in the flood comes from the fertile soil on the surface, and the flood is introduced into the clothesline in a controlled manner. It can increase the thickness of sandy soil by sedimentation. Improving the texture and fertilizing the soil.
(5) Different soils, different measures
When sandy soil is prepared, the borders are lower, the monopolies are wider, and the seeds are sown deeper. After sowing, the moisture should suppressed, and fertilizer shouldapplied in small amounts and diligently. When preparing the land for clay soil, the border should be high and the monopoly should be narrow. Try to winter plow the field, put more water in the field, and sow shallow seeds to facilitate the emergence of seedlings.
C. Soil acidity and alkalinity improvement
①Acidic soil improvement
Use lime to neutralize the acidity, applying 20-25 kg of lime per mu at a time. Until the transformation to neutral or slightly acidic soil.
②Increase the application of
Green manure, farm fertilizer, and sufficient base fertilizer. Increase the organic matter in the soil to improve the effect of soil acidity.
③Increase the frequency of irrigation
Flush out the acidic damage to the crop and apply more alkaline fertilizers. Such as ammonia, lime nitrogen, phosphate rock powder, etc. Neutralize the soil and improve crop quality yield.
④Salt-alkaline soil improvement
Apply more organic fertilizers to increase the organic matter content of the soil. Improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil and enhance the soil’s ability to retain water and fertilizer.
⑤ Planting green manure
Increase organic fertilizer while increasing mulching to reduce evaporation and salt suppression.
⑥ Reasonable tillage
Reasonable tillage loosens the soil in time. It can reduce evaporation, break the slab, improve the pass, inhibit the return of salt, and facilitate seed germination and root absorption.
⑦ Planting rice
The salts in soil soaked for a long time are pressed into the groundwater below the tillage layer and discharged out of the field.
⑧ Planting trees
Reduce wind speed, evaporation and ground salt return.
⑨ Scraping salt soil
In addition during the dry season in spring and autumn, the salt-bearing topsoil is scraped off. Therefore moving out of the cultivated area to reduce the soil salt content.
⑩ Chemical improvement
First by applying phosphogypsum, acidic fertilizer. Application of chemical methods such as salt suppressants, therefore improving alkaline soil.
C. Soil improvement in the Jiaodong area
The soil in the Jiaodong area is acidic and sandy. The soil has good permeability and is not easily affected by flooding. It has advantages such as low tillage resistance and easy to cultivate. However, the soils in some areas are too acidic, too loose in structure, and have poor water and fertilizer retention capacity.
D. Improvement of overly acidic soils in Jiaodong area
1. Fertilizer application
The organic matter content of the soil is increased as a result of applying organic fertilizers in large quantities and planting green manure. The same can also neutralize soil acidity and improve soil fertility retention.
2. Reduce chemical fertilizers
Especially the use of ammonia nitrogen fertilizers to avoid soil acidification caused by excessive application of fertilizers and improper fertilization methods.
3. Improve soil PH value
For example, slaked lime and some alkaline soil amendments are used to neutralize the acidity of the soil. Therefore, you can increase the amount of alkaline fertilizers applied to neutralize the soil and improve the quality of the crop.
4. Sandy soil is too loose and has poor water and fertilizer retention capacity.
Firstly by increasing the amount of organic fertilizer application and secondly by changing the loose structure of the soil. However it can improve the nutrient absorption and storage capacity of the soil.
5. Application of river mud and pond mud
Increase soil fertility significantly. Improve the defects of sandy soil such as excessive looseness, water leakage and fertilizer leakage.
6. Soil with thin sand layer
First of all, the sand can be pressed in deep autumn, so that the underlying clay is mixed with sandy soil to reduce its sandiness. The same can also take the guest soil improvement method to reduce the sandiness.
The principle of “little and often” should applied. Thus reducing nutrient losses and improving fertilizer utilization.