A. Critical period of autumn fertilization
Autumn is a critical period for late field management of orchards. Fall orchard fertilization, not only can improve the soil to improve the nutrients of the tree. It can also promote bud differentiation. Improve the fruit set rate and yield in the coming year.
B. Autumn fertilization statistics
80% of the orchard fertilizer needs in the fall (September-October) a one-time application, with a significant effect of increasing production and excellence.
C. Autumn fertilization time
1. After autumn before the fall of leaves
As early as possible, when the temperature is high and rainfall is high, the base fertilizer has sufficient time to decompose. Leaf function has not yet declined. There is a strong photosynthetic function, and nutrients flow back to the roots.
2. Fruit tree autumn tip
Because the fruit tree autumn tip of the long stop around the middle of September. Root system into the peak of growth, at this time fertilization of fruit tree root system absorption most. The utilization rate of the base fertilizer is the largest.
3. Planting late-maturing varieties
Considering the application of base fertilizer is generally used side deep fertilization. Depth in about 30 cm (will also be adjusted due to the age of the tree, soil, tree species, root distribution).
4. Damage to the root system
Delayed again and again, until after the fruit harvest to fertilize. And the beautiful name “moon” fertilizer. This is a big mistake!
D. Fall fertilization
Will certainly cause damage to the root system, so what impact on the growth and development of fruit trees and fruit?
①The effect of root breaking on fruit trees and fruits
In fruit arboriculture, it is believed that generally the root system can absorb nutrients to meet the needs of the tree.
②Autumn application of basal fertilizer
After all, the number of broken roots is limited and it is impossible to damage all the roots. Therefore, it can be determined that partial root breakage will not cause adverse effects on fruit trees and fruits.
In recent years, many highly efficient orchards have practiced inter-row furrowing and fertilization. Most of them are carried out in September, which is proved by a lot of practice. The application of fertilizer to break the roots did not affect the development of fruit trees and the quality of fruit.
E. Autumn fertilization root break benefits
It is certain that there are only benefits and no disadvantages of applying fertilizer in autumn. Autumn fertilizer more or less caused by broken roots, this is the peak of root development, wounded roots are easy to heal, farmers do not need to worry.
F. Angle analysis
Broken roots are equivalent to pruning the root system, and its pruning reaction is the same as short-cutting on the tree. A large number of new roots will grow under the wound. The original one root becomes ten or eight new roots, and the original old roots become new roots.
(1) Increase in the number of roots
The root system “rejuvenated”, the next year the ability to absorb nutrients will naturally increase.
(2) The root system of fruit trees is graded
The original old roots have evolved into the transporting roots, whose role is mainly to transport nutrients. The new roots that grow after the break are called growing roots, and the growing roots are the mother roots of the absorbing roots. In other words, next year’s absorbing roots will grow on the growing roots.
(3) Absorbing roots have a very short life span
Generally, it will not last more than one month, and only the growing roots can continuously grow absorbent roots. It is not so much that the absorbing roots die in large numbers and the tree cannot receive nutrients.
Many fruit trees’ stage deficiency is actually closely related to the stage deficiency of absorbing roots.
(5) Root failure
In fact, it is a kind of artificial environmental stress. At this point, there is still a special state of sulfur missing in order to open the secondary metabolic pathway of the crop, and one of the two conditions is missing.
G. Chinese herbal preparations
Because it contains a special element of sulfur, it can assist in opening the secondary metabolism of the crop. Combined with the chelated state of trace elements and high energy substances contained in the product. These elements and substances can ensure the operation of crop secondary metabolism, and the resulting chemosensitive substances increase plant resistance to adversity and disease and produce flavor substances that improve the nutrition and taste of agricultural products.
H. Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Famous fruit tree expert Shuang Huairui and other authorities believe that. The tree mourning old generally starts with the root system, root pruning renewal has the same important significance as above-ground branch pruning.
1. In production practice
The main digging through the trenches to apply base fertilizer. Or digging radial trenches, exposing a large number of roots. This should be changed in the past to minimize the concept of root injury, and pruning them with purpose.
2. Severe root baldness
You can thin the large roots or shorten the medium thickness roots to stimulate the roots at the root base wound.
3. Root system with few branches
To shorten and promote branching.
4. Especially in clay land
The uniaxial extension ability of the roots is strong, and the shortening effect is the best.
5. When applying base fertilizer
It can activate the large amount of elements in the soil and increase the air permeability of the soil. It is a wise choice to promote root absorption and spreading.
6. After the relevant data statistics
Apply the same quantity and quality of fertilizer on the same crop.
7. Autumn application compared with spring and winter application
It can increase fruit set rate by 8%-10% and yield by 10%-15%.
8. Base fertilizer has fertilizing effect
It takes some time.
9. Fertilization in winter and spring
Wait until spring when the buds are drawn, the time interval is too short, the fertilizer does not play.
10. Wait until the fertilizer effect comes up in summer
The fertilizer is not effective until summer. Cause a large number of over-vigorous branches that is the growth of the hairy strip, long branches and fruiting fruit compete for nutrients. Waste a lot of nutrients, and in serious cases lead to a large number of fruiting branches fall, the tree weakness and a series of reactions, forming a vicious circle.
I. Autumn fertilization
Break the roots, along with the use of herbal preparations. Biofungal groundnut, with many benefits.